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Analysis of the performance and influencing factors of magnesia calcium bricks

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This paper introduces the performance of magnesia-calcium bricks, including high temperature resistance, slag resistance, spalling resistance, wear resistance, molten steel purification performance and hydration resistance. The effects of the MgO/CaO ratio, chemical purity and density of magnesia-calcium bricks on the performance were analyzed and discussed. At the same time, it is recommended to produce “special” magnesium-calcium bricks that are suitable for users’ use conditions to improve their use effects.

Keywords: magnesia-calcium brick; performance; influencing factors

Magnesia-calcium bricks are high-quality alkaline composite refractory materials with MgO and CaO as the main chemical components, including dolomite bricks and magnesia dolomite bricks. Magnesia-calcium bricks have many excellent performance properties and are widely used in refining equipment such as AOD furnaces, achieving good results. As my country’s stainless steel and various clean steel production capacities continue to expand, the demand for various magnesium-calcium bricks is also increasing. In order to better produce and use magnesium-calcium bricks in the future, so that this high-quality refractory material can better serve my country’s steelmaking industry and other high-temperature industries, the performance and influencing factors of magnesium-calcium bricks are analyzed.

Performance and influencing factors of magnesium-calcium bricks

Magnesia-calcium bricks are mainly used as lining materials for refining equipment such as AOD furnaces, VOD furnaces and LF furnaces in the steelmaking industry. During use, it is subjected to various destructive effects such as high-temperature melting loss, chemical erosion and penetration of slag, strong erosion and wear of slag, molten steel and air flow, thermal shock caused by rapid temperature changes, and hydration due to absorption of water. This study conducts a qualitative analysis of the high-temperature resistance, slag resistance, spalling resistance, high-temperature wear resistance, molten steel purification performance, hydration resistance and influencing factors of magnesium-calcium bricks.

High temperature resistance

The high temperature resistance of magnesium-calcium bricks means that the magnesium-calcium bricks will not melt or soften and deform under high-temperature working conditions, and maintain good high-temperature stability and mechanical strength. Magnesia-calcium bricks are used in refining equipment such as AOD furnaces, VOD furnaces and LF furnaces, which have high working temperatures and frequent temperature changes. For example, the temperature during the oxidation period of the AOD furnace is above 1700°C, sometimes reaching around 1750°C, and the temperature in the eye area is even higher. Such a harsh high-temperature working environment requires magnesium-calcium bricks to have excellent high-temperature resistance to meet production needs.

The main minerals of magnesium-calcium bricks, MgO and CaO, are both high-temperature minerals. The melting point of MgO is 2800°C, and the melting point of CaO is 2570°C. MgO and CaO do not form binary composite minerals at high temperatures, and their lowest eutectic point is 2370°C. MgO and CaO also have good high temperature stability. Therefore, MgO and CaO give magnesium-calcium bricks excellent high temperature resistance. However, a small amount of impurities in magnesium-calcium bricks can have a greater negative impact on the high-temperature performance of magnesium-calcium bricks. The impact of impurity components on the high-temperature properties of magnesium-calcium bricks is related to the type and quantity of impurities. The more types of impurity components and the greater the content of certain impurity components, the greater the impact on the high-temperature properties of magnesium-calcium bricks. The impact of impurities on the high-temperature properties of magnesium-calcium bricks is actually the impact on the high-temperature properties of the main minerals MgO and CaO. Impurities react with CaO or MgO to form certain low-melting point minerals, which produce a liquid phase at high temperatures, reducing the high-temperature resistance of magnesium-calcium bricks.

The impurity components in magnesium-calcium bricks are mainly Fe₂O₃, SiO₂ and Al₂O₃. These three main impurities have little effect on the high-temperature performance of MgO. Because the minerals produced by their reaction with MgO have higher melting points. For example, MgO reacts with SiO₂ to form 2MgO·SiO₂ (forsterite), with a melting point of 1890°C; and reacts with Al₂O₃ to form MgO·Al₂O₃ (magnesia-aluminum spinel), with a melting point of 2135°C. MgO can solid dissolve a large amount of FeO without producing a liquid phase, and also has a strong absorption capacity for Fe₂O₃. The iron oxide content in magnesium-calcium bricks is generally less than 1.5%. Therefore, it has little impact on the high-temperature properties of MgO.

The three main impurities in magnesium-calcium bricks have greatly different effects on the high-temperature properties of CaO. Among them, SiO₂ reacts with CaO to form 3CaO·SiO₂ (tricalcium silicate) or 2CaO·SiO₂ (dicalcium silicate), with melting points of 1900°C and 2130°C respectively. Both are high-melting-point minerals and have little impact on the high-temperature properties of CaO. However, Fe₂O₃ and Al₂O₃ react with CaO to produce low-melting point minerals 2CaO·Fe₂O₃ (dicalcium ferrite) and 4CaO·Al₂O₃·Fe₂O₃ (tetracalcium aluminoferrite), etc., with melting points of 1436°C and 1415°C respectively. The formation of these two low-melting point minerals has a greater negative impact on the high-temperature properties of CaO, ultimately resulting in a decline in the high-temperature resistance of magnesium-calcium bricks.

From the above analysis, it can be seen that the main harmful impurities of magnesium-calcium bricks are Fe₂O₃ and Al₂O₃. Compared with Fe₂O₃ and Al₂O₃, SiO₂ has less harm to the high-temperature performance of magnesium-calcium bricks and can be regarded as minor impurities. In order to improve the high temperature resistance of magnesium-calcium bricks, synthetic magnesium-calcium refractory raw materials with high purity, high density and high MgO content should be selected when producing magnesia-calcium bricks. On the premise of meeting other requirements, the MgO content of magnesia-calcium bricks should be increased as much as possible. Because compared with CaO, MgO has a higher melting point, better high-temperature volume stability, and the minerals produced by reacting with impurity components have a higher melting point. Therefore, increasing the content of MgO can improve the high temperature resistance of magnesium-calcium bricks. On the other hand, the harm caused by impurities to the high-temperature properties of magnesium-calcium bricks is mainly caused by the reaction with CaO to form low-melting substances. Therefore, increasing the MgO content and reducing the CaO content can reduce the harm caused by impurities to the high-temperature properties of magnesium-calcium bricks. Obviously, the high temperature resistance of MgO-rich magnesia dolomite bricks is better than that of dolomite bricks.

Anti-slag performance

The slag resistance performance of magnesia-calcium bricks refers to the resistance of magnesia-calcium bricks to the chemical erosion and penetration of slag when in contact with slag during use. It is one of the most important performance properties of magnesia-calcium bricks. The chemical corrosion of magnesia-calcium bricks by slag is the chemical reaction between certain components in the slag and certain components in the magnesia-calcium bricks at high temperatures. A low melt (liquid phase) is generated, causing the working surface of the magnesia-calcium bricks to be melted and lost into the slag. The penetration of slag into magnesia-calcium bricks is that high-temperature liquid slag penetrates into the interior of magnesia-calcium bricks through pores and cracks, forming a metamorphic layer of a certain thickness, and then the metamorphic layer falls off, causing damage to the working surface of magnesia-calcium bricks.

In various refining furnaces, chemical erosion and penetration of slag is one of the main causes of furnace lining damage. Therefore, improving the slag resistance of magnesia-calcium bricks is particularly important to extend the service life of the refining furnace lining. The slag-resistant performance of magnesia-calcium bricks mainly depends on its chemical composition, organizational structure, alkalinity and temperature of the slag.

The main minerals MgO and CaO of magnesia-calcium bricks show different slag resistance properties. It is difficult for MgO to react chemically with slag. Even if a certain degree of reaction occurs, low melting point minerals will not be generated. For example, MgO can dissolve a large amount of FeO without producing a liquid phase. MgO also has strong resistance to SiO₂ in the slag. Therefore, MgO has strong resistance to chemical attack by slag. However, MgO has poor resistance to slag penetration, and high-temperature slag easily penetrates into the interior of MgO (periclase) to form a metamorphic layer.

Compared with MgO, CaO has greater reactivity with slag and is easily corroded by slag containing high FeO. Therefore, CaO has poor resistance to chemical attack by slag. However, it reacts with SiO₂ in the slag to generate high melting point minerals 2CaO·SiO₂ or 3CaO·SiO₂, which increases the viscosity of the slag and inhibits the penetration of the slag into the interior of the brick. Therefore, CaO has stronger resistance to slag penetration than MgO.

The higher the purity of magnesia-calcium bricks, the smaller the reactivity with slag, the less low-melting materials generated, and the stronger the ability to resist chemical erosion of slag. The denser the organizational structure of magnesia-calcium bricks, the greater the difficulty for slag to penetrate into the interior of the bricks, and the stronger the ability to resist slag penetration.

Increasing the MgO content, purity and density of magnesia-calcium bricks can improve the ability of magnesia-calcium bricks to resist slag erosion; increasing the content and density of CaO can improve the ability of magnesia-calcium bricks to resist slag penetration. In practical applications, the most suitable MgO/CaO ratio, purity and density of magnesia-calcium bricks should be determined based on the operating conditions of the refining equipment. The magnesia-calcium bricks have good resistance to chemical corrosion and penetration of slag, so as to achieve better use results. Practice has proved that the comprehensive slag resistance performance of magnesia dolomite bricks rich in MgO is better than that of dolomite bricks. Therefore, high-purity and high-density magnesia dolomite bricks fired at high temperatures are mostly used in the slag line of the refining furnace.

The alkalinity of the slag (CaO+MgO/SiO₂) and temperature have an important impact on the slag resistance performance of magnesia-calcium bricks. Magnesia-calcium bricks have weak resistance to acidic slag and are easily corroded by acidic slag. However, it has strong resistance to high alkalinity slag, and within a certain alkalinity range, as the alkalinity of the slag increases, the resistance of magnesia-calcium bricks to slag increases (the erosion ability of magnesia-calcium bricks by slag weakens) . The higher the temperature of the slag, the stronger the reactivity between the slag and the magnesia-calcium bricks, and the more serious the chemical corrosion of the magnesia-calcium bricks. The higher the temperature of the slag, the lower the viscosity, and the easier it is to penetrate into the interior of the magnesia-calcium bricks and form a metamorphic layer. Therefore, during the refining operation, by increasing the alkalinity of the slag and controlling the temperature of the slag, the erosion and penetration of the magnesia-calcium bricks by the slag can be effectively reduced, and the service life of the magnesia-calcium bricks can be further improved. For example, Taiyuan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd. has developed a single-slag (fully alkaline slag) refining process by improving the refining and slag-making process of the AOD furnace. During the entire refining process, the slag always maintains a high alkalinity. It also controls excessive furnace temperature and large fluctuations, reduces the erosion and penetration of slag on magnesia-calcium bricks and other forms of damage, and extends the service life of the furnace lining. The specific operation is: before adding molten steel into the AOD furnace, first add a batch of lime and magnesium oxide powder into the furnace to increase the content of MgO and CaO in the initial slag and make the initial slag reach a higher alkalinity. During the blowing process, as the temperature of the molten steel rises, lime is added in batches. The fluctuation of furnace temperature and the maximum temperature during the oxidation period are effectively controlled, which reduces the damage of magnesia-calcium bricks by slag and continuously improves the life of the magnesium-calcium brick lining of AOD furnace.

Anti-peeling performance

During the use of magnesia-calcium bricks, the working end of the magnesia-calcium bricks will crack and peel due to destructive effects such as changes in furnace temperature and slag penetration. Especially in VOD furnaces, the spalling and damage of magnesia-calcium bricks is more serious. Therefore, improving the spalling resistance of magnesia-calcium bricks is also one of the main ways to increase the service life of magnesia-calcium brick furnace linings.

According to the cause, the spalling of magnesium-calcium bricks is divided into thermal spalling and structural spalling. Thermal spalling is the spalling of the working surface of magnesium-calcium bricks caused by periodic rapid changes in furnace temperature during use. Refining equipment such as AOD furnaces, VOD furnaces and LF furnaces used by magnesium-calcium bricks are all intermittently operated, and the furnace temperature changes frequently and with a large range of changes. For example, when refining stainless steel in an AOD furnace, the furnace temperature drops to about 1300°C before adding molten steel, the furnace temperature during the oxidation and decarburization period can reach a maximum of 1750°C, and the furnace temperature during the reduction period is about 1650°C. In addition, each time the charge is added, the furnace temperature will drop. During the entire refining process, such frequent and large changes in furnace temperature will inevitably produce thermal stress inside the working end of the magnesium-calcium bricks. Cracks occur under the action of thermal stress. As the cracks increase and expand, the working end of the magnesia-calcium brick will crack and then peel.

Structural spalling is when high-temperature furnace slag penetrates into the interior of magnesia-calcium bricks through pores and cracks, forming a metamorphic layer of a certain thickness at the working end of the brick. When the furnace temperature changes rapidly, due to the difference in thermal expansion properties between the minerals in the metamorphic layer and between the metamorphic layer and the original brick layer, cracks in different directions will occur inside the metamorphic layer and between the metamorphic layer and the original brick layer. As the cracks continue to increase and expand, the metamorphic layer will continue to peel off.

Compared with other magnesia refractory products (such as magnesia bricks, magnesia-chrome bricks, etc.), magnesium-calcium bricks have better anti-flaking properties. This is because the CaO in magnesia-calcium bricks has greater creep properties at high temperatures. It can buffer the thermal stress generated inside the brick due to rapid temperature changes, inhibit the occurrence and expansion of cracks inside the brick, and improve the ability of magnesium-calcium bricks to resist thermal spalling. On the other hand, CaO in magnesium-calcium bricks reacts with SiO₂ in slag to form high-melting-point minerals, which increases the viscosity of slag. It makes it more difficult for the slag to penetrate into the interior of the brick, thins the metamorphic layer, and improves the anti-structural spalling performance of the magnesia-calcium brick. Therefore, increasing the CaO content of magnesium-calcium bricks, especially increasing the CaO content in the matrix and making it evenly distributed in the matrix, can significantly improve the anti-flaking performance of magnesium-calcium bricks. For example, in the 1980s, Japan’s Asahi Glass Company and Nissin Steel Company’s Zhounan Steel Plant. We jointly developed a CaO-MgO-dolomite brick (2) for VOD furnaces, which adds high-purity fused CaO sand fine powder to the matrix of MgO-dolomite bricks. Improved brick thermal spalling resistance and structural spalling resistance. When used in a 45tVOD furnace, the service life is 50% longer than that of the original MgO-dolomite brick. The main physical and chemical indicators of the brick are: MgO 51.3%, CaO 46.5%, SiO₂0.5%, Al₂O₃ 0.2%, Fe₂O₃0.9%, apparent porosity 10.8%, normal temperature compressive strength 69MPa, and bulk density 3.04g/cm³.

The pores in magnesia-calcium bricks can buffer the thermal stress in magnesium-calcium bricks, prevent the occurrence and further expansion of cracks, and help improve the thermal spalling resistance of magnesium-calcium bricks. However, the pores in the magnesia-calcium brick, especially the through-holes, make it easier for the slag to penetrate into the interior of the brick, forming a thicker metamorphic layer, which accelerates the structural peeling of the magnesia-calcium brick. Therefore, the pores in the magnesia-calcium brick have a dual impact on its anti-flaking performance. In practical applications, various factors should be considered comprehensively to determine the porosity of the magnesia-calcium brick to achieve better use results. The porosity of fired magnesia dolomite bricks used in AOD furnaces is preferably controlled at 10% to 12%.

When producing magnesium-calcium bricks, increasing the proportion of large particles and appropriately reducing the proportion of medium particles and fine powder can improve the spalling resistance of magnesium-calcium bricks.

Adding an appropriate amount of ZrO₂ fine powder to the powder of magnesium-calcium bricks generates high melting point mineral CaZrO₃ in the matrix, which can effectively prevent the occurrence of cracks and improve the toughness and anti-flaking properties of magnesium-calcium bricks.

Wear resistance

Magnesia-calcium bricks are used for the lining of refining equipment such as AOD furnaces, VOD furnaces and LF furnaces. During the refining process, high-pressure gas is continuously blown into the furnace, causing the molten steel and slag in the furnace to be violently stirred. It causes strong erosion on the working surface of magnesia-calcium bricks, causing them to be continuously worn. Therefore, magnesia-calcium bricks are required to have good high-temperature wear resistance.

The high-temperature wear resistance of magnesia-calcium bricks is specifically reflected in the high-temperature strength. The higher the high-temperature strength, the better the high-temperature wear resistance. The main factors affecting the high-temperature strength of magnesia-calcium bricks are: MgO/CaO ratio, chemical purity and density.

Because the high temperature strength of MgO is better than that of CaO. Therefore, increasing the MgO/CaO ratio of magnesia-calcium bricks can improve their high-temperature strength. And the high-temperature strength of magnesia-calcium bricks increases as the MgO/CaO ratio increases. Therefore, the high-temperature strength of magnesia dolomite bricks is better than that of dolomite bricks.

The impurities in magnesium-calcium bricks produce a liquid phase at high temperatures, softening the magnesia-calcium bricks and causing a decrease in high-temperature strength. Therefore, the higher the chemical purity of magnesium-calcium bricks, the less liquid phase is produced at high temperatures and the greater the high-temperature strength. Therefore, improving the chemical purity of magnesium-calcium bricks, especially improving the purity of the matrix, can improve the high-temperature strength of magnesium-calcium bricks.

The denser the organizational structure of magnesium-calcium bricks, the stronger the bond between mineral crystals and the higher the high-temperature strength.

In order to improve the high-temperature wear resistance of magnesium-calcium bricks, synthetic magnesia-calcium sand with a high MgO/CaO ratio, high purity and high density should be used in the production of magnesia-calcium bricks. Add as much high-purity fused magnesia fine powder as possible to the brick-making powder to increase the MgO content in the matrix, and add an appropriate amount of ZrO₂ fine powder to strengthen the matrix of magnesium-calcium bricks. The bricks must be formed using a high-pressure brick press, and the magnesium-calcium bricks must be fired at ultra-high temperatures to increase their density, thereby improving the high-temperature strength and wear resistance of the magnesium-calcium bricks.

Performance of purifying molten steel

The outstanding performance of magnesia calcium brick is its purification effect on molten steel. During use, free CaO in magnesium-calcium bricks comes into contact with molten steel. It can adsorb [S], [P] and non-metallic inclusions such as Al₂O₃ and SiO₂ in molten steel, reduce the [O] content in molten steel, etc., and promote further purification of molten steel. These have been confirmed by production and experimental studies. After the 225t ladle wall (non-slag line) bricks of Shougang Second Steelmaking Plant were changed from unburned magnesia-alumina bricks to MgO-CaO-C bricks, the [O] content and the number of inclusions in the molten steel were reduced. The particle size of inclusions is reduced and the purity of molten steel is improved.

The chemical analysis of lime bricks after use at the contact point between the steel drum and the molten steel was proved by Naoyuki Talc and others. The main external components absorbed by lime bricks from molten steel are: S, Al₂O₃ and SiO₂, etc. After X-ray diffraction, it was detected that these components exist in the form of CaS, 12CaO·7Al₂O₃ and 3CaO·SiO₂. The lime bricks in the tundish that are in contact with the molten steel and the MgO-CaO bricks that are in contact with the slag line, like the steel drum, absorb external components such as S, Al₂O₃ and SiO₂. This shows that CaO can absorb S, Al₂O₃ and SiO₂ in molten steel and has the function of purifying molten steel. Research by Li Nan and others shows that CaO in alkaline refractories plays a key role in the dephosphorization of molten metal. When CaO reaches 25%, significant dephosphorization effects can be obtained.

When the CaO content is 50% to 70%, the desulfurization effect is the best. This should also be one of the main reasons why European countries widely use dolomite bricks on ladles.

Increasing the CaO content of magnesium-calcium bricks can improve the performance of magnesia-calcium bricks in purifying molten steel. The performance of dolomite bricks in purifying molten steel is better than that of magnesia dolomite bricks. Therefore, when refining clean steel, magnesia-calcium bricks with high CaO content should be used as much as possible to achieve better purification effects. It should be noted that the purification effect of magnesium-calcium bricks on molten steel is not only related to the content of CaO, but also affected by many other factors. Such as refining equipment and its operating methods, types of steel being refined, content and types of impurities in molten steel, etc. In actual production applications, magnesia-calcium brick varieties should be reasonably selected based on specific use conditions and comprehensive consideration of various factors to achieve ideal use effects.

Anti-hydration performance

Because magnesia-calcium bricks contain free CaO, during the storage and use of magnesium-calcium bricks, if they are exposed to external moisture, they will hydrate, resulting in a loose structure of magnesia-calcium bricks, a decrease in various performance properties, and in severe cases, scrapping. . Therefore, improving the hydration resistance of magnesia-calcium bricks is one of the main technical issues involved in the production and use of magnesia-calcium bricks.

The higher the free CaO content of magnesia-calcium bricks, the worse the hydration resistance. Therefore, the hydration resistance of magnesia dolomite bricks is better than that of dolomite bricks. This is one of the reasons why magnesia dolomite bricks are more commonly used than dolomite bricks. Ways to improve the hydration resistance of magnesia-calcium bricks: First, try to reduce the free CaO content in magnesia-calcium bricks; second, avoid contact between magnesia-calcium bricks and external moisture.

Reduce the CaO content of magnesia-calcium bricks and increase the MgO content, so that the MgO in magnesia-calcium bricks forms a continuous phase, and the free CaO is in a separated state and is wrapped by MgO. Add appropriate amounts of additives, such as ZrO₂, TiO₂, etc., to the ingredients of magnesia-calcium bricks to react with free CaO to generate water-resistant minerals and wrap the free CaO.

High-density synthetic magnesia-calcium raw materials are used. On the premise of meeting the high temperature performance of magnesia-calcium bricks, a small amount of impurities are allowed in the synthetic magnesia-calcium raw materials. Impurities react with CaO at high temperatures to form hydration-resistant minerals, which also promote the sintering of materials and increase the density of magnesia-calcium bricks.

When making bricks, the raw materials are dried and the binder is fully boiled to avoid bringing moisture into the bricks. The produced magnesia-calcium bricks should be sealed and packaged in a timely manner to prevent contact with external moisture.

When building the furnace lining, avoid contact between the magnesia-calcium bricks and moisture. After the bricks are laid, they must be baked and put into use in time. During use, avoid prolonged shutdown of the furnace as much as possible. During the shutdown period, the furnace lining must be baked to prevent the furnace lining from cooling and absorbing moisture and causing hydration.

Analysis of factors affecting the performance of magnesia-calcium bricks

From the above analysis, it can be seen that the main factors affecting the performance of magnesia-calcium bricks are: MgO/CaO ratio, chemical purity and density of magnesia-calcium bricks. The trends in the influence of changes in various factors on the performance of magnesia-calcium bricks are shown in Table 1.

As can be seen from Table 1, when other conditions remain unchanged, the MgO/CaO ratio of magnesium-calcium bricks is increased. It can improve the high-temperature resistance of magnesium-calcium bricks, the chemical erosion resistance of slag, the high-temperature wear resistance and the hydration resistance, but it will reduce the spalling resistance of magnesium-calcium bricks, the resistance to slag penetration and the performance of purifying molten steel. When other conditions remain unchanged, by improving the chemical purity of magnesium-calcium bricks, except for the decrease in hydration resistance, other performance properties will be improved.

Table 1 The influence trend of various factors on the performance of magnesium-calcium bricks

Usage performanceThe MgO/CaO ratio increasesImproved chemical purityIncreased density
High temperature resistanceimproveimproveimprove
Resistance to slag erosionimproveimproveimprove
Resistance to slag penetrationdeclineimproveimprove
Heat peeling resistancedeclineimprovedecline
Resistance to structural spallingdeclineimproveimprove
High temperature wear resistanceimproveimproveimprove
Purification of molten steel performancedeclineimprovedecline
Anti-hydration propertiesimprovedeclineimprove

In addition, adding certain additives in the production of magnesium-calcium bricks can improve some performance of magnesium-calcium bricks. For example, adding an appropriate amount of ZrO₂ can improve the spalling resistance, high temperature wear resistance and hydration resistance of magnesium-calcium bricks. ZrO₂ is known as the “multifunctional” additive for magnesium-calcium bricks. In foreign countries, the eye bricks of AOD furnaces generally use high-purity, high-density fired magnesia dolomite bricks with a ZrO₂ content of about 1%, and the results are good.

It can also be seen from Table 1 that changes in the MgO/CaO ratio, chemical purity and density have an impact on each performance of magnesium-calcium bricks. This also shows that the various performance properties of magnesium-calcium bricks are interrelated and affect each other. If a certain performance of magnesium-calcium bricks is changed due to certain needs, other performance properties will also change accordingly.

Conclusion

Through the analysis and discussion of the performance of magnesium-calcium bricks, we understand and understand the performance of magnesium-calcium bricks and the main factors that affect the performance of magnesium-calcium bricks, as well as ways to improve the performance of magnesium-calcium bricks. This laid the foundation for better production and use of magnesium-calcium bricks in the future. It should be noted that the use effect of magnesium-calcium bricks depends on its use performance and use conditions. Only when the use performance is adapted to the use conditions can good use effects be achieved. On the contrary, although some of the magnesium-calcium bricks have good performance, they may not necessarily achieve good results. This requires magnesia-calcium brick manufacturers to first conduct detailed analysis and research on the user’s usage conditions (types of refining equipment, main steel types for refining, refining operation methods, etc.) when producing magnesium-calcium bricks, and clarify the user’s purposes and requirements. . Comprehensive factors from all aspects, and then determine the main physical and chemical indicators and production process parameters of magnesium-calcium bricks (such as raw material varieties, brick ratio, etc.), to produce “special” magnesium-calcium bricks with performance that is suitable for user conditions. . Only in this way can the ideal use effect be achieved. Therefore, it is recommended to promote this production model in the production of magnesium-calcium bricks in the future. According to different manufacturers, different refining processes, different refining equipment and different use parts, we produce “special” magnesium-calcium bricks with different performance. The stronger the targeting and the higher the degree of specificity, the better the effect will be.

LMM YOTAI established in 2007. Our production technology comes from Japanese Yotai. As an experienced and international player in the refractories industry. We have succeeded in expanding both the breadth of its product range and the depth of its services. From raw material selection, refractory portofio & optimization, installation & services & recycle of used refractories on site to further reduce client’s Opex & Capex in refractory consumption per ton steel output, meanwhile improve product quality of client.

Our Product have been supplied to world’s top steel manufacturer Arcelormittal, TATA Steel, EZZ steel etc. We do OEM for Concast and Danieli for a long time

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